King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia R.I.P وفاة الملك عبد الله بن عبد العزيز آل سعود‎

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Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (Arabic: عبد الله بن عبد العزيز آل سعود‎, ‘1 August 1924 – 22 January 2015) was the King of Saudi Arabia and Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques from 2005 to 2015. He ascended to the throne on 1 August 2005 upon the death of his half-brother,King Fahd. According to Forbes, in 2013, Abdullah was among the world’s most powerful people, and was ranked 8th globally.
Abdullah, like Fahd, was one of the many sons of Ibn Saud, the founder of modern Saudi Arabia. Abdullah held important political posts throughout most of his adult life. In 1961 he became mayor of Mecca, his first public office. And, in 1962, he was appointed commander of the Saudi Arabian National Guard, a post he was still holding when he became king. He also served as deputy defense minister and was named crown prince when Fahd took the throne in 1982. After King Fahd suffered a serious stroke in 1995, Abdullah became the de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia until ascending the throne a decade later.
During his reign he maintained close relations with United States and Britainand bought billions of dollars worth of defense equipment from both states. He also gave women the right to vote and to compete in the Olympics. Furthermore, Abdullah maintained the status quo during the waves of protest in the kingdom during the Arab Spring. In November 2013, a BBC report claimed that Saudi Arabia could obtain nuclear weapons at will from Pakistan due to a longstanding relationship.

The King outlived two of his crown princes. Conservative Interior Minister Nayef bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud was named heir to the throne on the death of Sultan bin Abdulaziz in October 2011, but Nayef himself died in June 2012. Abdullah then named the 76-year-old defense minister, Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, as crown prince. According to a 2001 report, Abdullah “has four wives, seven sons, and 15 daughters”. The king had a personal fortune estimated at US$18 billion, making him the third wealthiest head of state in the world. He died on 22 January 2015, aged 90, three weeks after being hospitalized for pneumonia.
Early life
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King Abdullah as Commander of Saudi National Guard
Abdullah was born on 1 August 1924. He is the tenth son of King Abdulaziz. His mother, Fahda bint Asi Al Shuraim, was a member of Al Rashid, longtime rivals of the Al Saud. She was descended from the powerful Shammar tribe and was the daughter of former Shammar tribe chief Asi Shuraim. She died when Abdullah was six. He had younger full-sisters.
Madawi Al-Rasheed argues that his maternal roots and his experience of an early speech impediment led to delay in his rise to higher status among the other sons of King Abdulaziz.
Commander of National Guard
In 1963, Abdullah was made commander of Saudi National Guard (SANG). This post allowed him to secure his position in the House of Saud. SANG, which had been based on the Ikhwan, became a modern army force under his command. Beginning by 1985, SANG also sponsors the Janadiriyah festival that institutionalized the traditional folk dances, camel races, and tribal heritage.
Second Deputy Prime Minister
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Abdullah with US Vice President Dan Quayle
King Khalid appointed Prince Abdullah as second deputy prime minister in March 1975, a reflection of being the second in line of succession to the Saudi throne. In other words, after this appointment, Prince Abdullah became the number three-man in Saudi administration. However, his appointment caused friction in the House of Saud. Then-crown prince Prince Fahd together with his full-brothers known as Sudairi Seven supported the appointment of their own full brother, Prince Sultan. Prince Abdullah was pressured to concede control of SANG in return for his appointment as Second Deputy Prime Minister. In August 1977, this caused a debate between hundreds of princes in Riyadh. Abdullah did not concede authority of SANG because he feared that would weaken his authority.
Crown Prince
On 13 June 1982 when King Khalid died, Fahd bin Abdulaziz became King, Prince Abdullah became Crown Prince the same day. He also maintained his position as head of the National Guard. During his years as crown prince, Abdullah bin Abdulaziz was described as a supporter of accommodation. He managed to group a large number of fringe and marginalized princes discontented with the prospect of the succession being passed among the Sudairi brothers one after the other. His control of the National Guard also was a key factor in his success in becoming crown prince. When King Fahd was incapacitated by a major stroke in 1995, Crown Prince Abdullah acted as de facto regent of Saudi Arabia.
In May 2001, Crown Prince Abdullah did not accept an invitation to visit Washington due to U.S. support for Israel in the Al Aqsa Intifada. He also appeared more eager than King Fahd to cut government spending and open Saudi Arabia up economically. He pushed for Saudi membership in the World Trade Organization, surprising some.
In August 2001, he ordered then Saudi Ambassador to the US, Bandar bin Sultan, to return to Washington. This reportedly occurred after Crown Prince Abdullah witnessed a brutality between an Israeli soldier and a Palestinian woman. He later also condemned Israel for attacking families of accused suspects.
In 2002, he developed an Arab peace initiative, commonly referred to as the “Abdullah plan”, to achieve mutually agreed-on resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict. The initiative was adopted at the League of Arab States’s Beirut summit in March 2002.
On the second anniversary of the September 11 attacks, Crown Prince Abdullah wrote a letter to U.S. President George W. Bush, which ended with the following words:
“God Almighty, in His wisdom, tests the faithful by allowing such calamities to happen. But He, in His mercy, also provides us with the will and determination, generated by faith, to enable us to transform such tragedies into great achievements, and crises that seem debilitating are transformed into opportunities for the advancement of humanity. I only hope that, with your cooperation and leadership, a new world will emerge out of the rubble of the World Trade Center: a world that is blessed by the virtues of freedom, peace, prosperity and harmony.”
By late 2003, after the Saudi Arabian branch of al-Qaeda carried out a series of bombings that threatened to destabilize the country, Crown Prince Abdullah together with other decision-making elites began to deal with political concerns. One of such moves was his project to promote more tolerance for religious diversity and rein in the forces of politico-religious extremism in the kingdom, leading to the establishment of National Dialogue. In the summer of 2003, Abdullah threw his considerable weight behind the creation of a national dialogue that brought leading religious figures together, including a highly publicized meeting attended by the kingdom’s preeminent Shi’i scholar Hasan al-Saffar, as well as a group of Sunni clerics who had previously expressed their loathing for the Shi’i minority
King of Saudi Arabia
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Royal Standard of the King
Abdullah succeeded to the throne upon the death of his half-brother King Fahd. He was formally enthroned on 3 August 2005.
Domestic affairs
King Abdullah’s administration has realized various reforms in different fields.
In 2005, King Abdullah implemented a government scholarship program to send young Saudi men and women to study abroad in different universities around the world for undergraduate and postgraduate studies. The program offered funds for tuition and living expenses up to four years. It is estimated that more than 70,000 students studied abroad in more than 25 countries. United States, England, and Australia are the top three destinations mostly aimed for by the young Saudi students. There are more than 22,000 Saudi students studying in the United States, exceeding pre-9/11 levels. Public health engagement included breast cancer awareness and CDC cooperation to set up an advanced epidemic screening network that protected this year’s 3 million Hajj pilgrims.
King Abdullah has implemented many reform measures. He has re-shuffled the Ministry of Education’s leadership in February 2009 by bringing in his pro-reform son-in-law, Faisal bin Abdullah, as the new minister. He also appointed Nora Al Fayez, a U.S.-educated former teacher, as deputy education minister in charge of a new department for female students.

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Abdullah and El Sissy of Egypt
He realized a top-to-bottom restructuring of the country’s courts to introduce, among other things, review of judicial decisions and more professional training for Shari’a judges. He developed a new investment promotion agency to overhaul the once-convoluted process of starting a business in Saudi Arabia. He created a regulatory body for capital markets. He has promoted the construction of the King Abdullah University for Science and Technology (the country’s new flagship and controversially co-ed institution for advanced scientific research). He invested in educating the workforce for future jobs. The Saudi government is also encouraging the development of non-hydrocarbon sectors in which the Kingdom has a comparative advantage, including mining, solar energy, and religious tourism. The Kingdom’s 2010 budget reflected these priorities—about 25 percent was devoted to education alone—and amounts to a significant economic stimulus package.
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King Abdullah with Russian President Vladimir Putin on 11 February 2007.
The response of his administration to homegrown terrorism was a series of crackdowns including raids by security forces, arrests, torture and public beheadings. He vowed to fight terrorist ideologies within the country. He made the protection of Saudi Arabia’s critical infrastructure a top security priority.
His strategy against terrorism has been two-pronged: he attacked the roots of the extremism that fed Al-Qaida through education and judicial reforms to weaken the influence of the most reactionary elements of Saudi Arabia’s religious establishment. He is also promoting economic diversification.
He decreed in August 2010 that only officially approved religious scholars associated with the Senior Council of Ulema would be allowed to issue fatwas. Similar decrees since 2005 were previously seldom enforced. Individual fatwas relating to personal matters were exempt from the royal decree. The decree also instructed the Grand Mufti to identify eligible scholars.
In light of the Arab Spring, Abdullah laid down a $37-billion programme of new spending including new jobless benefits, education and housing subsidies, debt write-offs, and a new sports channel. There was also a pledge to spend a total of $400 billion by the end of 2014 to improve education, health care and the kingdom’s infrastructure. However, Saudi police arrested 100 Shiite protesters who complained of government discrimination. Later during the 2011–2012 Saudi Arabian protests, in September 2011, the King announced women’s right to vote in the 2015 municipal council elections, a first significant reform step in the country since the protests. He also stated that women would become eligible to take part in the unelected shura.
In January 2012, King Abdullah dismissed the head of Saudi Arabia’s powerful religious police, replacing him with a more moderate cleric, state news agency SPA reported, without giving reasons. Abdullatif Abdel Aziz al-Sheikh was named, in place of Sheikh Abdulaziz al-Humain, to head the Commission for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice. King Abdullah had appointed Humain in 2009 to head the “mutaween,” which ensures the strict application of the country’s ultra-conservative version of Islam, as a step towards reforming it. Humain hired consultants to restructure the organisation, met local human rights groups and consulted professional image-builders in a broad public relations campaign. Under his leadership the commission also investigated and punished some “out-of-control” officers for misbehaviour.
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King Abdullah University of Science and Technology has the 3rd largest endowment of any university in the world.
In July 2012, Saudi Arabia announced that it would allow its women athletes to compete in the Olympics for the first time and that the country’s Olympic Committee would “oversee participation of women athletes who can qualify”. The decision ended speculation that the entire Saudi team might have been disqualified on grounds of gender discrimination. The public participation of women in sport is still fiercely opposed by many Saudi religious conservatives. There is almost no public tradition of women participating in sport in the country. Saudi officials said that, if successful in qualifying, female competitors would be dressed “to preserve their dignity”. On 11 January 2013, King Abdullah appointed thirty women to the Consultative Assembly or Shura Council and modified the related law to mandate that no less than 20 percent of 150 members would be women.
In August 2013, the Saudi cabinet approved a law making domestic violence a criminal offence for the first time. The law calls for a punishment of up to a year in prison and a fine of up to 50,000 riyals (US$13,000). The maximum punishments can be doubled for repeat offenders. The law criminalizes psychological and sexual abuse, as well as physical abuse. It also includes a provision obliging employees to report instances of abuse in the workplace to their employer. The move followed a Twitter campaign. The new laws were welcomed by Saudi women’s rights activists, although some expressed concerns that the law could not be implemented successfully without new training for the judiciary, and that the tradition of male guardianship would remain an obstacle to prosecutions.
Interfaith dialogue
In November 2007, King Abdullah visited Pope Benedict XVI in the Apostolic Palace. He is the first Saudi monarch to visit the Pope. In March 2008, he called for a “brotherly and sincere dialogue between believers from all religions”
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Abdullah in a meeting with US Secretary of State John Kerry, 5 January 2014.
In June 2008, he held a conference in Mecca to urge Muslim leaders to speak with one voice with Jewish and Christian leaders. He discussed with and took approval from Saudi and non-Saudi Islamic scholars to hold the interfaith dialogue. In the same month, Saudi Arabia and Spain agreed to hold the interfaith dialogue in Spain. The historic conference finally took place in Madrid in July 2008 where religious leaders of different faiths participated, and later led to the 2010 proclamation of World Interfaith Harmony Week.
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He had never previously made overtures for dialogue with eastern religious leaders, such as Hindus and Buddhists. The Mecca conference discussed a paper on dialogue with monotheists — highlighting the monotheistic religions of southeast Asia, including Sikhism — in the third axis of the fourth meeting, titled “With Whom We Talk,” presented by Sheikh Badrul Hasan Al Qasimi. The session was chaired by Ezz Eddin Ibrahim, cultural adviser to the president of the United Arab Emirates. The session also discussed a paper presented on coordination among Islamic institutions on Dialogue by Abdullah bin Omar Nassif, Secretary General of the World Islamic Council for Preaching and Relief and a paper on dialogue with divine messages, presented by Professor Mohammad Sammak – Secretary General of the Islamic Spiritual Summit in Lebanon.

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In November 2008, he and his government arranged discussion at the United Nations General Assembly to “promote dialogue among civilizations, cultures and peoples, as well as activities related to a culture of peace” and calling for “concrete action at the global, regional and subregional levels.” It brought together Muslim and non-Muslim nations to eradicate preconceptions as to Islam and terrorism, with world leaders — including former U.K. Prime Minister Tony Blair, Israeli President Shimon Peres, U.S. President George W. Bush and King Abdullah II of Jordan — attending.
In 2011, an agreement for the establishment of the King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz International Centre for Interreligious and Intercultural Dialogue in Vienna was signed between the governments of Austria, Spain, and Saudi Arabia. The official opening of the centre was in November 2012, with foreign Minister Saud Al Faisal as its first general secretary and Austria’s former federal justice minister Claudia Bandion-Ortner as the first deputy general secretary.
Arab common market
King Abdullah called for the establishment of an Arab common market in January 2011. Saudi foreign minister, Saud bin Faisal, stated the Arab Customs Union would be ready by 2015 and by 2017 the common market would also be in place. There have been intensive efforts to link Arab countries with a railway system and an electricity power grid. Work on the power grid project has started in some Arab countries.
United States
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Abdullah and Bush during visit to the United States in April 2005
King Abdullah has long been pro-American and a long time close ally of the United States. In October 1976, as Prince Abdullah was being trained for greater responsibility in Riyadh, he was sent to the United States to meet with President Gerald Ford. He again traveled to the United States as Crown Prince in October 1987, meeting Vice President George H. W. Bush. In September 1998, Crown Prince Abdullah made a state visit to the United States to meet in Washington, D.C. with President Bill Clinton. In September 2000, he attended millennium celebrations at the United Nations in New York City. In April 2002, Crown Prince Abdullah made a state visit to the United States with President George W. Bush and he returned again in April 2005 with Bush. In April 2009, at a summit for world leaders U.S. President Barack Obama met him. In June 2009, King Abdullah hosted President Obama in Saudi Arabia. In turn, Obama hosted King Abdullah at the White House in the same month.

He showed great support for Obama’s presidency. “Thank God for bringing Obama to the presidency”, he said, adding that Obama’s election created “great hope” in the Muslim world. He stated, “We (the U.S. and Saudi Arabia) spilled blood together” in Kuwait and Iraq and Saudi Arabia valued this tremendously and friendship can be a difficult issue that requires work but the United States and Saudi Arabia have done it for 70 years over three generations. “Our disagreements don’t cut to the bone”, he stated. He was the leading gift-giver to the U.S. president and his office in his first two years in office, his gifts totaling more than $300,000. A ruby and diamond jewelry set, given by the king and accepted by Michelle Obama on behalf of the United States, was worth $132,000. However, according to federal law, gifts of such nature and value are accepted “on behalf of the United States” and are considered property of the U.S. government.
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Iraq
The Bush administration ignored advice from him and Saudi foreign minister Saud Al Faisal against invading Iraq. However, other sources said that many Arab governments were only nominally opposed to the Iraq invasion because of popular hostility. Before becoming king, Prince Abdullah was thought to be completely against the U.S. invasion of Iraq; this, however, was not the case. Riyadh provided essential support to the United States during the war and proved that “necessity does lead to some accommodations from time to time”. The King expressed a complete lack of trust in Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri Al Maliki and held out little hope for improved Saudi-Iraqi relations as long as al-Maliki remains in office. King Abdullah told an Iraqi official about Al Maliki, “You and Iraq are in my heart, but that man is not.”
In September 2014 following the spread of ISIL, he issued a statement, “From the cradle of revelation and the birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), I call on leaders and scholars of the Islamic nation to carry out their duty towards God Almighty, and to stand in the face of those trying to hijack Islam and present it to the world as a religion of extremism, hatred, and terrorism, and to speak the word of truth, and not fear anybody. Our nation today is passing through a critical, historic stage, and history will be witness against those who have been the tool exploited by the enemies to disperse and tear the nation and tarnish the pure image of Islam”.
Iran
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Barack Obama meets with King Abdullah.
In 2006, Iranian Supreme Leader Khamenei had sent his adviser Ali Akbar Velayati with a letter asking for King Abdullah’s agreement to establish a formal back channel for communication between the two leaders. Abdullah said he had agreed, and the channel was established with Velayati and Saud Al Faisal as the points of contact. In the years since, the King noted, the channel had never been used.
In April 2008, according to a U.S. cable released by Wikileaks, King Abdullah had told the U.S. ambassador to Iraq, Ryan Crocker, and General David Petraeus to “cut off the head of the snake”. Saudi Arabia’s ambassador to Washington, Adel al-Jubeir, “recalled the King’s frequent exhortations to the US to attack Iran” and to put an end to its nuclear program. King Abdullah asserted that Iran is trying to set up Hezbollah-like organizations in African countries, observing that the Iranians don’t think they are doing anything wrong and don’t recognize their mistakes. He said the Iranians “launch missiles with the hope of putting fear in people and the world”. The King described his conversation with Iranian foreign minister Mottaki as “a heated exchange, frankly discussing Iran’s interference in Arab affairs”. When challenged by the King on Iranian meddling in Hamas affairs, Mottaki apparently protested that “these are Muslims”. “No, Arabs”, countered the King. “You as Persians have no business meddling in Arab matters”. King Abdullah said he would favor Rafsanjani in an Iranian election.
He told General Jones that Iranian internal turmoil presented an opportunity to weaken the regime—which he encouraged—but he also urged that this be done covertly and stressed that public statements in support of the reformers were counterproductive. The King assessed that sanctions could help weaken the government, but only if they are strong and sustained.
Bahrain
In March 2014 Saudi forces led troops into Bahrain to quell peaceful demonstrations. At the same time, the Saudis formed the Gulf Cooperation Council to coordinate efforts between different Gulf countries.
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President Obama bows to King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia
Guantánamo Bay
In December 2010, leaked diplomatic cables published by WikiLeaks revealed that King Abdullah wanted all detainees released from the Guantanamo Bay detention camp to be tracked through an implanted microchip, in a similar way to race horses. The King made the private suggestion during a meeting in Riyadh in March 2009 with John O. Brennan, the White House counterterrorism adviser. Brennan replied that “horses don’t have good lawyers” and that such a proposal would “face legal hurdles” in the United States. In the same cables, it was revealed that Abdullah also privately urged the United States to attack Iran to destroy its nuclear weapons program.

China
Since King Abdullah’s visit to Beijing in January 2006, the Saudi-Chinese relationship has focused predominantly on energy and trade. The king’s visit was the first by a Saudi head of state to China since the two countries established diplomatic relations in 1990. Bilateral trade with China has more than tripled, and China would soon be Saudi Arabia’s largest importer. Saudi Arabia also committed significant investments in China, including the $8 billion Fujian refinery. Based on a WikiLeaks cable, the King told the Chinese that it was willing to effectively trade a guaranteed oil supply in return for Chinese pressure on Iran not to develop nuclear weapons.
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In late March 2011, King Abdullah sent Bandar, secretary general of the National Security Council, to China to gain its support regarding Saudi Arabia’s attitude towards the Arab Spring. In turn, lucrative arm contracts were secretly offered to China by the Kingdom. Furthermore, King Abdullah believed that China as well as India were the future markets for Saudi energy.
Relations with other nations
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Abdullah with Lech Kaczyński,President of Poland.
In November 2009 the King was received by Nicolas Sarkozy who committed various diplomatic faux pas. The diplomatic relationship Jacques Chirac had with Saudi Arabia was not evident with Sarkozy. In January 2011, the Kingdom granted asylum to the ousted Tunisian leader, Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, under conditions of no further political involvement. According to leaked cables, King Abdullah was more receptive than Crown Prince Sultan to former Yemeni President Saleh.
Saudi Arabia, by the endorsement of the Gulf Cooperation Council, sent 1,200 troops to Bahrain to protect industrial facilities, resulting in strained relations with the United States. The military personnel were part of the Peninsula Shield Force which is stationed in Saudi Arabia but not affiliated with one country alone.
King Abdullah supported renewed diplomatic relations with the Syrian government and Bashar al-Assad.
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They met in Damascus on 7 October 2009. In addition, Assad attended the opening of King Abdullah University of Science and Technology in October 2009. Relations between Syria and Saudi Arabia deteriorated as a result of the Syrian Civil War. In August 2011, King Abdullah recalled the Saudi Ambassador from Damascus due to the political unrest in Syria and closed its embassy in Syria.
In December 2011, King Abdullah called on leaders of the Gulf Cooperation Council to strengthen their alliance into a united “single entity” as they confront threats to national security. “I ask you today to move from a stage of cooperation to a stage of union in a single entity”, King Abdullah said at the opening session of a GCC meeting in Riyadh in comments aired on Saudi state television. “No doubt, you all know we are targeted in our security and stability.”
Succession to the throne
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Prince Sultan
King Abdullah’s heir apparent was his half-brother Crown Prince Sultan until the latter’s death on 22 October 2011. The title of Crown Prince then passed to Prince Sultan’s full-brother, Nayef, until his death in Geneva, Switzerland, on 16 June 2012, while undergoing medical tests for an undisclosed ailment. His third heir apparent was his half-brother Salman, who was named as Crown Prince on 18 June 2012, and would succeed him in 2015.
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Prince Nayef
In 2006, Abdullah set up the Allegiance Council, a body that is composed of the sons and grandsons of Saudi Arabia’s founder, King Abdulaziz, to vote by a secret ballot to choose future kings and crown princes. The council’s mandate was not to have started until after the reigns of both King Abdullah and late Prince Sultan were over. It was not clear what was to happen when Prince Sultan died before the end of Abdullah’s reign, leaving a question as to whether the council would vote for a new crown prince, or whether Prince Nayef would automatically fill that position. Despite such concerns, Prince Nayef was appointed Crown Prince on 27 October 2011 after consultation with the Allegiance Council by Abdullah.
In November 2010, Prince Nayef chaired a cabinet meeting because of the deterioration of the King’s health. During the same month, King Abdullah transferred his duties as Commander of the Saudi National Guard to his son Prince Mutaib. King Abdullah is credited with building up the once largely ceremonial unit into a modern 260,000-strong force that is a counterweight to the army. The Guard, which was Abdullah’s original power base, protects the royal family. This was suggested as an apparent sign that the elderly monarch was beginning to lessen some of his duties.
Various positions
King Abdullah was Commander of the Saudi National Guard from 1963 to 2010. He was Chairman of the Saudi Supreme Economic Council until 2009. He is President of the High Council for Petroleum and Minerals, President of the King Abdulaziz Center For National Dialogue, Chairman of the Council of Civil Service, and head of the Military Service Council.
Personal life
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King Abdullah was a falconer in his youth
King Abdullah followed his father’s (King Abdulaziz’s) path in terms of marriage in that he married the daughters of the al Shalan of Anizah, al Fayz of Bani Sakhr, and al Jarbah of the Iraqi branch of the Shammar tribe. King Abdullah had over 11 wives, and fathered more than 16 children. One of his wives is the sister of Rifaat al-Assad’s wife. He also married Jawahir bint Ali Hussein from Al Jiluwi clan, with whom he had a daughter, Princess Anoud and a son, Prince Saud. Aida Fustuq was another wife of Abdullah, they had 2 children, Adila and Abdulaziz. They divorced later. Munira bint Abdullah Al Al Shaykh was the wife of King Abdullah and gave birth to his eldest living son, Prince Khaled. Tathi bint Mishan al Faisal Al Jarba gave birth to Prince Mishaal.
He was 180 cm (5′ 11″) tall.

Sons
King Abdullah’s eldest son Prince Khaled was deputy commander of the Saudi Arabian National Guard West until 1992. His second son Prince Mutaib is the former commander and current minister of the National Guard. His mother is Munira Al Otaishan. Prince Mishaal has been the governor of the Makkah Province since 2014. Prince Abdulaziz was the king’s former Syrian adviser and has been deputy foreign affairs minister since 2011.Prince Faisal is the head of the Saudi Arabian Red Crescent Society. King Abdullah’s seventh son, Prince Turki, who was a jet pilot at the Royal Saudi Air Force, is the governor of the Riyadh Province. The youngest son, Prince Badr, was born in 2003, when Abdullah was about 79 years old.
Daughters

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Princess Adila
King Abdullah’s daughter Princess Adila is married to Faisal bin Abdullah. She is one of the few Saudi princesses with a semi-public role, and a known advocate of the woman’s right to drive. She is also known as “her father’s public face”. One of Abdullah’s younger daughters, Princess Sahab, was born in 1993. Sahab bint Abdullah married Khalid bin Hamad Al Khalifa, son of Bahraini King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, on 6 June 2011. Princess Sahab is the daughter of the king from his wife of the Al-Jarbah tribe.
From his marriage to Princess Alanoud Al Fayez (arranged when she was 15 without her having ever met him), whom he has now divorced, he had four daughters – Princesses Sahar, Maha, Hala and Jawaher. The four princesses have been under house arrest for the last 13 years, and are not allowed to leave the country. After media releases in March 2014, Sahar and Jawaher received no food or clean water for 25 days, lost 10 kilos each and their mother carried out weekly protests in front of the Saudi Arabian embassy in London, and about which Sahar and Jawaher released a video while under house arrest pleading for help from the international community.

An online petition on behalf of Sahar and Jawaher, asking for their release and with 1,800 signatures as of January 2015, is addressed to U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon and Barack Obama. King Abdullah also had a daughter called Princess Nora who died in 1990 in a car accident.

Declining health and death
The King had curtailed his activities from June 2010 with no clear explanation. Diplomats said there had been uncertainty about the extent of his health problems since Abdullah canceled a visit to France. In a television appearance in which he was seen to use a cane, King Abdullah said he was in good health but had something “bothering” him. In a visit by US diplomats to Saudi Arabia in April 2014 the Saudi King was seen connected to breathing tubes during talks, indicating increasing health problems.
From 2010 to 2012 King Abdullah had four back surgeries. The first two of the surgeries were in New York, one in 2010 for a slipped disk and a blood clot pressing on nerves in his back and a second to stabilize vertebrae in 2011. The third one was in Riyadh in 2011. And the last one was also in Riyadh on 17 November 2012.
Saudi leaker: Royals considering king replacement
In November 2010, his back problems came to light in the media. He had an “accumulation of blood” around the spinal cord. He suffered from a herniated disc and was told to rest by doctors. To maintain the Kingdom’s stability, Crown Prince Sultan returned from Morocco during the King’s absence. The King was admitted to New York-Presbyterian Hospitalafter a blood clot complicated a slipped disc and underwent successful back surgery. The lead surgeon was Muhammad Zaka, who probably removed the herniated disk and performed a lumbar fusion. He subsequently had another successful surgery in which surgeons “stabilized a number of vertebras”. He left the hospital on 22 December 2010 and convalesced at The Plaza in New York City. On 22 January 2011, he left the United States and went to Morocco. He returned to the Kingdom on 23 February 2011.
King Abdullah left Saudi Arabia on “special leave” on 27 August 2012. Al-Quds reported that he had an operation at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York on or before 4 September 2012, following a heart attack.
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However, there was no official report on this alleged operation. Instead, it was officially announced that the King went on a private trip to Morocco, where he is known to go frequently. The King returned to Saudi Arabia from Morocco on 24 September. Nearly two months later, in November 2012, King Abdullah underwent another back surgery in Riyadh and left hospital on 13 December 2012. A report in April 2014 stated the King had around six months left to live, citing his diagnosis of terminal lung cancer. On 2 January 2015, Abdullah was hospitalized for pneumonia and died on 23 January.


Philanthropy
• King Abdullah, while still Crown Prince, paid for the separation surgery of a pair of Polish conjoined twins, which took place at the King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh on 3 January 2005. He was given “honorary citizenship” by the Polish town of Janikowo, where the twins were born. On 18 March 2005, he was awarded the Order of the Smile, which he received during his visit to Poland in 2007.
• He established two libraries: the King Abdulaziz Library in Riyadh; and another in Casablanca, Morocco
• He donated over $300,000 to furnish a New Orleans high school rebuilding after Hurricane Katrina
• He donated $500 million to the United Nations World Food Programme in 2008
• He donated $50 million in cash and $10 million worth of relief materials for the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China
• He donated $10 billion to the endowment fund of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology in May 2008
Influence
King Abdullah was, in 2012, named as the most influential Muslim among 500 Muslims for the previous 4 years. In December 2012, Forbes named him as the seventh most powerful figure in its list of the “World’s Most Powerful People” for 2012, being the sole Arab in the top ten.
He Backed the Egyptian Revolution and supported General El Sissy by declaring the Muslem Brotherhood Ikhwan a Terrorist organization,
Honours and awards
King Abdullah received a number of international high orders. Most notably, he was an honoured knight of the strictly Roman Catholic Order of the Golden Fleece (the Spanish branch), which caused some controversy.
In April 2012, he was awarded by the United Nations a gold medal for his contributions to intercultural understanding and peace initiatives.
Wealth
In 2011, Forbes estimated his and his immediate family’s documentable wealth at US$21 billion, ranking him as one of the richest royals in the world.
Al Janadria Farm and stables

King Abdullah was an expert equestrian in his youth. His stables were considered the largest in the Kingdom, with over 1,000 horses spread throughout five divisions led by his son Prince Mutaib bin Abdullah. The King owned Janadria Farm, the large complex located in the suburbs of Riyadh.
Casablanca Palace Complex

For holidays the King maintained a large palace complex with several residential compounds in Casablanca, Morocco.
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It is equipped with two heliports and is surrounded by large mansions on 133 acres area of lush vegetation.

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Shajar al-Durr شجر الدر

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Shajar al-Durr (Arabic: شجر الدر, “Tree of Pearls”) (Royal name: Fatma al-Malikah ad-Din Umm-Khalil Shajar al-Durr (Arabic: الملكة عصمة الدين أم خليل شجر الدر) (nicknamed: أم خليل, Umm Khalil; mother of Khalil) (? – 28 April 1257, Cairo) was the widow of the Ayyubid Sultan As-Salih Ayyub who played a crucial role after his death during the Seventh Crusade against Egypt (1249–1250). She was regarded by Muslim historians and chroniclers of the Mamluk time as being of Turkicorigin. She became the Sultana of Egypt on May 2, 1250, marking the end of the Ayyubid reign and the starting of the Mamluk era.
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Mamluks
Where an elite, or most highly trained, professional soldiers, called Mamluks, or foreign slaves, such as Shajarat al-Durr had been. These trained fighters had been taken as youths from outside the Muslim world-in areas of Turkey, Russia, and even northern Europe-and given a thorough and difficult education in the arts of war. Once they had undergone this training, they were considered paid soldiers; although they were no longer slaves in the literal sense, they were still referred to as Mamluks. Many of them converted to Islam.

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Background
Shajar al-Durr was of Turkic origin, and described by historians as a beautiful, pious and intelligent woman. She was purchased as a bondmaid by As-Salih Ayyub in the Levant before he became a Sultan and accompanied him with his Mamluk Baibars his body guard and loyal slave warior. Later when he became a Sultan in 1240 she went with him to Egypt and gave birth to their son Khalil who was called al-Malik al-Mansour. Some time after the birth, As-Salih Ayyub married her.
In April 1249, As-Salih Ayyub, who was gravely sick in Syria, returned to Egypt and went to Ashmum-Tanah, near Damietta after he heard that King Louis IX of France had assembled a crusader army in Cyprus and was about to launch an attack against Egypt.
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King Louis IX disembark at Damietta
In June 1249, the crusaders landed in the abandoned town of Damietta, at the mouth of the river Nile. As-Salih Ayyub was carried on a stretcher to his palace in the better-protected town of Al Mansurah where he died on November 22, 1249 after ruling Egypt for nearly 10 years. Shajar al-Durr informed Emir Fakhr ad-Din Yussuf Ben Shaykh (commander of all the Egyptian army) and Tawashi Jamal ad-Din Muhsin (the chief eunuch who controlled the palace) of the Sultan’s death but as the country was under attack by the crusaders they decided to conceal his death. The coffined body of the Sultan was transported in secret by boat to the castle on al-Rudah island in the Nile.
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Although the deceased Sultan had not left any testimony concerning who should succeed him after his death, Faris ad-Din Aktai was sent to Hasankeyf to call al-Muazzam Turanshah, the son of the deceased Sultan. Before he died, the Sultan signed a large number of blank papers which were used by Shajar al-Durr and Emir Fakhr ad-Din in issuing decrees and giving Sultanic orders and together they succeeded in convincing the people and the other government officials that the Sultan was only ill rather than dead. Shajar al-Durr continued to have food prepared for the sultan and brought to his tent. High officials, the Sultan’s Mamluks and soldiers were ordered – by the will of the (ill Sultan) – to swear an oath of loyalty to the Sultan, his heir Turanshah and the Atabeg Fakhr ad-Din Yussuf.

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The crusaders
Defeat of the Seventh Crusades
The news of the death of as-Salih Ayyub reached the crusaders in Damietta and with the arrival of reinforcements led by Alfonso, Count of Poitou, the brother of King Louis IX, they decided to march on Cairo. A crusader force led by Louis IX’s other brother Robert I of Artois crossed the canal of Ashmum (known today as Albahr Alsaghir) and attacked the Egyptian camp in Gideila, two miles (3 km) from Al Mansurah.
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Emir Fakhr ad-Din was killed during the sudden attack and the crusader force advanced toward the town of Al Mansurah. Shajar al-Durr agreed to Baibars’s plan to defend Al Mansurah. The crusader force was trapped inside the town, Robert of Artois was killed and the crusader force was annihilated by an Egyptian force and the townspeople, led by the men who were about to establish the state which would dominate the southern Mediterranean for decades: Baibars al-Bunduqdari, Izz al-Din Aybak, and Qalawun al-Alfi.
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King Louis IX captive prisoner of Shajar el Durr
In February 1250 the dead Sultan’s son Al-Muazzam Turanshah arrived in Egypt and was enthroned at Al Salhiyah as he had no time to go to Cairo. With his arrival, Shajar al-Durr announced the death of as-Salih Ayyub. Turanshah went straight to Al Mansurah and on April 6, 1250 the crusaders were entirely defeated at the Battle of Fariskur and king Louis IX was captured.

Conflict with Turanshah
Once the Seventh Crusade was defeated and Louis IX was captured, troubles began between Turanshah on one side and Shajar al-Durr and the Mamluks on the other.
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Turanshah, knowing he would not have full sovereignty while Shajar al-Durr, the Mamluks and the old guards of his late father were around, detained a few officials and started to replace old officials, including the deputy Sultan, with his own followers who had come with him from Hasankeyf. He then sent a message to Shajar al-Durr while she was in Jerusalem warning her and requesting her to hand over to him the wealth and jewels of his late father. The request and manners of Turanshah distressed Shajar al-Durr. When she complained to the Mamluks about Turanshah’s threats and ungratefulness, the Mamluks, particularly their leader Faris ad-Din Aktai, were enraged. In addition, Turanshah used to drink alcohol and when drunk he abused the bondmaids of his father and threatened the Mamluks. Turanshah was assassinated by the Mamluks at Fariskur on May 2, 1250. He was the last of the Ayyubids Sultans.
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Assassination Of TuranShah.
Rise to power
After the assassination of Turanshah the Mamluks and Emirs met at the Sultanic Dihliz and decided to install Shajar al-Durr as the new monarch with Izz al-Din Aybak as Atabeg (commander in chief). Shajar al-Durr was informed of this at the Citadel of the Mountain in Cairo and she agreed.
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Depiction by GENZOMAN
Shajar al-Durr took the royal name “al-Malikah Ismat ad-Din Umm-Khalil Shajar al-Durr” with a few additional titles such as “Malikat al-Muslimin” (Queen of the Muslims) and “Walidat al-Malik al-Mansur Khalil Emir al-Mo’aminin” (Mother of al-Malik al-Mansur Khalil Emir of the faithfuls) She was mentioned in the Friday prayers in mosques with names including “Umm al-Malik khalil” (Mother of al-Malik Khalil) and “Sahibat al-Malik as-Salih” (Wife of al-Malik as-Salih). Coins were minted with her titles and she signed the decrees with the name “Walidat Khalil”. Using the names of her late husband and her dead son were attempts to gain respect and legitimacy for her reign as an heir of the Sultanate.
After paying homage to Shajar al-Durr, Emir Hossam ad-Din was sent to King Louis IX who was still imprisoned in Al Mansurah and it was agreed that Louis IX would leave Egypt alive after paying half of the ransom that imposed on him earlier in exchange for his life and Damietta. Louis surrendered Damietta and sailed to Acre On May 8, 1250 accompanied by about 12000 war prisoners.
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Conflict with the Ayyubids
News of the murder of al-Muazzam Turanshah and the inauguration of Shajar al-Durr as the new Sultana reached Syria. The Syrian Emirs were asked to pay homage to Shajar al-Durr but they refused and the Sultan’s deputy in Al Karak rebelled against Cairo. The Syrian Emirs in Damascus gave the city to an-Nasir Yusuf the Ayyubid Emir of Aleppo and the Mamluks in Cairo responded by arresting the Emirs who were loyal to the Ayubbids in Egypt. In addition to the Ayyubids in Syria, the Abbasid Caliph al-Musta’sim in Baghdad also rejected the Mamluk move in Egypt and refused to recognize Shajar al-Dur as a monarch. The refusal of the Caliph to recognize Shajar al-Durr as the new Sultana was a great setback to the Mamluks in Egypt as the custom during the Ayyubid era was that the Sultan could gain legitimacy only through the recognition of the Abbasid Caliph. The Mamluks therefore decided to instal Izz al-Din Aybak as a new Sultan. He married Shajar al-Durr who abdicated and passed the throne to him after she had ruled Egypt as Sultana for about three months. Though the period of Shajar al-Durr’s rule as a monarch was of short duration, it witnessed two important events in history: one, the expelling of Louis IX from Egypt, which marked the end of the Crusaders’ ambition to conquer the southern Mediterranean basin; and two, the death of the Ayyubid dynasty and the birth of the Mamluk state which dominated the southern Mediterranean for decades .

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Shajar el Durr
To please the Caliph and secure his recognition, Aybak announced that he was merely a representative of the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad. To placate the Ayyubids in Syria the Mamluks nominated an Ayyubid child named al-Sharaf Musa as a co-sultan. But this did not satisfy the Ayyubids and armed conflicts between the Mamluks and the Ayyubids broke out. The Caliph in Baghdad, preoccupied with the Mongols who were raiding territories not far from his capital, preferred to see the matter settled peacefully between the Mamluks in Egypt and the Ayyubids in Syria. Through negotiation and mediation of the Caliph that followed the bloody conflict, the Mamluks who manifested military superiority reached an agreement with the Ayyubids that gave them control over southern Palestine including Gaza and Jerusalem and the Syrian coast. By this agreement the Mamluks not only added new territories to their dominion but also gained recognition for their new state. In addition to the conflict with the Ayyubids of Syria, the Mamluks successfully countered serious rebellions in Middle and Upper Egypt.

Then, Aybak, fearing the growing power of the Salihiyya Mamluks who, with Shajar al-Durr, had installed him as a Sultan, had their leader Faris ad-Din Aktai murdered. The murder of Aktai was followed instantly by a Mamluk exodus to Syria where they joined the Ayyubid an-Nasir Yusuf. Prominent Mamluks like Baibars al-Bunduqdari and Qalawun al-Alfi were among those Mamluks who fled to Syria. Aybak became the sole and absolute ruler of Egypt after the Salihiyya Mamluks who were the supporters of Shajar al-Durr left Egypt and turned against him.

Death
By 1257 disputes and suspicion had become part of the relation between Aybak, a Sultan who was searching for security and supremacy, and his wife Shajar al-Durr, a former Sultana who had a strong will and managed a country on edge of collapse during an external invasion.
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Tomb of Shajar el Dur in Cairo
Shajar al-Durr wanted sole rule of Egypt. She concealed Sultanate affairs from Aybak; she also prevented him from seeing his other wife and insisted that he should divorce her. Instead, Aybak, who needed to form an alliance with a strong Emir who could help him against the threat of the Mamluks who had fled to Syria, decided in 1257 to marry the daughter of Badr ad-Din Lo’alo’a the Ayyubid Emir of al-Mousil. Badr ad-Din Lo’alo’a warned Aybak that Shajar al-Durr was in contact with an-Nasir Yusuf in Damascus. Shajar al-Durr, feeling at risk and betrayed by Aybak, the man who she made a Sultan, had him murdered by servants while he was taking a bath. He had ruled Egypt for seven years. Shajar al-Durr claimed that Aybak died suddenly during the night but his Mamluks (Mu’iziyya), led by Qutuz, did not believe her and the servants involved confessed under torture.
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Sultana of Egypt
Impact
Before their deaths, Aybak and Shajar al-Durr firmly established the Mamluk dynasty that would ultimately repulse the Mongols, expel the European Crusaders from the Holy Land, and remain the most powerful political force in the Middle East until the coming of the Ottomans.
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Shagaret el Durr Park in Mansoura Egypt.
Shajar al-Durr in Egyptian folklore
Shajar al-Durr is one of the characters of Sirat al-Zahir Baibars (Life of al-Zahir Baibars), a folkloric epic of thousands of pages that was composed in Egypt during the early Mamluk era and took its final form at the early Ottoman era.

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Story teller in Egypt
The tale which is a mix of fiction and facts reflects the fascination of Egyptian common people for both Baibars and Shajar al-Durr. Fatma Shajarat al-Durr, as the tale names Shajar al-Durr, was the daughter of Caliph al-Muqtadir whose kingdom in Baghdad was attacked by the Mongols. She was called Shajarat al-Durr (tree of pearls) because her father dressed her in a dress that was made of pearls. Her father granted her Egypt as she wished to be the Queen of Egypt and as-Salih Ayyub married her in order to stay in power as Egypt was hers.
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Salaf Fawakhergy,playing Shagaret el Durr in an Egyptian TV series.
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El Dur folklore In Egypt
When Baibars was brought to the Citadel in Cairo she loved him and treated him like a son and he called her his mother. Aybak al-Turkumani, a wicked man, came from al-Mousil to steal Egypt from Shajarat al-Durr and her husband al-Salih Ayyub. Shajarat al-Durr killed Aybak with a sword but, while fleeing from his son, she fell from the roof of the citadel and died.
Coins of Shajar al-Durr
The following names and titles were inscribed on the coins of Shajar al-Durr: al-Musta’simiyah al-Salihiyah Malikat al-Muslimin walidat al-Malik al-Mansur Khalil Amir al-Mu’minin.

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Shajar el Durr Dinar
(The Musta’simiyah the Salihiyah Queen of the Muslims Mother of King al-Mansur Khalil Emir of the faithful) and Shajarat al-Durr. Also the names of the Abbasid Chaliph were inscribed on her coins: Abd Allah ben al-Mustansir Billah

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MASTERS OF SEX

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By Dustin Rowles
What I love about Masters of Sex is that, like Boardwalk Empire, it masterfully weaves fiction with reality. It is based extensively on countless hours of interviews with Virginia Johnson, whose fictional counterpart is played by Lizzy Caplan. There have obviously been some liberties taken, but Masters of Sex seems to capture the spirit of Masters and Johnson’s relationship, as well as the details involved in their sex studies.

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I encourage you to watch the show . To goose your interest, I have included ten quick real-life facts about Masters and Johnson, some of which we have already seen play out, while others we can expect to see in the future of the series. There are spoilers both for episodes that have aired, and for future episodes, so if you don’t like being spoiled by history, skip the rest of this post and seek out the series wherever you can find it.

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1. Despite the initially creepy nature of their relationship in Masters of Sex, 15 years after the study began, Masters would eventually leave his wife and marry Virginia Johnson. They married in 1971, though they would divorce 20 years later in 1992. Their sexual relationship did begin as part of their scientific research and it is true that Masters convinced Johnson to have sex as part of their sex study.
In the end, their divorce, however, was amicable. Afterwards, while they no longer interacted socially very much, they did continue to work together (including a book called Heterosexuality).
Incidentally, Dr. Masters left Johnson for a woman he met 55 years earlier in medical school. Johnson — who claims that she never romantically loved Masters, though she did like being married to him — was happy for her ex-husband.
Here’s a picture of the real Bill Masters and Virginia Johnson.
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Oh, and if you’re curious, by the time that Masters and Johnson married in 1971, Masters had two children with his first wife, Libby, who conceived through fertility treatment. However, Masters and Johnson’s sexual relationship does appear to have begun early on in their sex study.
It’s also true that Johnson had two children with a former husband (her second), a bandleader. Johnson herself was briefly a country singer.

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2. Over the course of the study, Masters and Johnson observed 10,000 complete cycles of sexual response, which has got to become numbing after a certain period. That has to be the equivalent of around 1,000 hours of Internet porn, which I suspect would be enough to turn anyone off of sex.

Lizzy Caplan Nude Scene in Masters of Sex by celebrity-boy
3. In 1964 they established the Reproductive Biology Research Foundation in St. Louis, Missouri. He was its director, although Johnson would not be named its co-director until 1973, when the organization’s name was changed to the Masters and Johnson Foundation. The two revolutionary books that came out of the studies, Human Sexual Response and Human Sexual Inadequacy, were best-sellers, translated in over 30 languages.
4. As reflected in the show, the study did, indeed, begin with prostitutes. One hundred and 45 prostitutes participated in the study before Masters and Johnson moved toward studying members of the community.
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5. Included among the findings in Masters and Johnson’s study was scientific proof that men need a break after ejaculation before they can orgasm again, while women need no such break and could have multiple orgasms. They also found that the rhythmic contractions of orgasms in both sexes occurring initially in 0.8 second intervals and then gradually slowing in both speed and intensity.

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6. They also found that, though it takes longer to become aroused, older people age 70 and beyond were perfectly capable of intense orgasms and a healthy sexual life.

Lizzy Caplan from Masters of Sex S01 Full Nude… by jamboree787
7. They also found that gay men — with little discussion — quickly managed to figure out who was top and who was bottom. Likewise, with no verbal communication, one partner in lesbian couples quickly assumed sexual control.

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8. Between 1968 and 1977, Masters and Johnson treated homosexuality, which was considered abnormal at the time. They actually reported a 71 percent success rate in converting homosexuals into heterosexuals over a six year period, which — to me — calls into question their findings in other areas of sexual response. Virginia Johnson had major reservations with that study and, in fact, later revealed that she suspected Bill Masters may have fabricated some of the results.

Caitlin FitzGerald and Lizzy Caplan nude… by robertzre
9. Masters and Johnson were also pioneers in the field of sexual dysfunction, developing a form of rapid treatment psychotherapy with an 80 percent success rate. Before that time, treatment had a very low success rate.

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10. Masters died in 2001 due to complications from Parkinson’s Disease, while Virginia Johnson died in July of this 2013, due to complications from several illnesses. He was 85 at the time of his death, while she was 88.
Other details:
— Provost Scully (Beau Bridges) is a composite character (made up of two real-life characters, whose names were changed for the series).
— Masters often did deal with cases of sexual identity with his real-life patients.
— Masters was a huge fan of sports, so the boxing episode from season two certainly fits within the spirit of that obsession.
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Sarah Bergbreiter: Why I make robots the size of a grain of rice

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Sarah Bergbreiter runs the Maryland Microrobotics Laboratory at the University of Maryland, where she develops innovative technologies that could advance medicine, consumer electronics and other sciences.

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She joined the university in 2008 as an assistant professor of mechanical engineering.
Having received her B.S.E degree in electrical engineering from Princeton, she worked on her M.S. and Ph.D. at Berkeley, which is where she focused on microrobotics. She has received multiple awards for her work, including the DARPA Young Faculty Award in 2008 and the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists in 2013.

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Sarah Bergbreiter packs advanced technologies into tiny robots that can overcome obstacles 80 times their height.

By studying the movement and bodies of insects such as ants, Sarah Bergbreiter and her team build incredibly robust, super teeny, mechanical versions of creepy crawlies … and then they add rockets. See their jaw-dropping developments in micro-robotics, and hear about three ways we might use these little helpers in the future.
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Watch A Comedian Interrupt His Own Show To Point Out A Double Standard Of TV Censors We do not Believe in Censorship

Curator: Rebecca Eisenberg

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It all started when Chris Hardwick noticed that the censors blurred Miley Cyrus’ nipples in this Instagram photo:
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But were totally fine with showing the audience his full, unblurred nipples in a picture that he shared to Instagram:
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Why the double standard? When it comes down to it, pretty much everyone has nipples. So why are women’s nipples considered NSFW but men can flaunt their nipples pretty much anywhere that doesn’t have a “no shoes, no shirt, no service” sign?
First, let’s get one thing clear:
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His rant detours into why letting women put their nipples on the Internet is awesome *for men* for a bit, but I love how he brings it back to the double standard and how important it is to talk to your kids about healthy sexuality at 1:57.
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Great question.
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Of course, not all mommies have mammary glands, but that’s not really the point.
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I will sum up how awesome this rant is with a GIF:
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Watch the whole clip:

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Upworthy and other sources

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He Climbs On His Desk, Insults His Teacher, And Leaves The Whole Class Speechless.

Curator: Laura Willard

Sometimes we need to feel a little uncomfortable to understand something.

We don’t always know what someone is going through.
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Because we don’t know what’s happening with others, we can sometimes make remarks that are out of place. That’s OK. It happens. We just need to remember that things aren’t always as they seem.
Enter humor.

This PSA makes a great point about how things appear versus how they are. It starts off funny. The teacher is annoyed with the student. Another student chimes in with a snide remark.
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The student cracks a joke.
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The teacher responds.
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And the student makes a joke at the teacher’s expense.
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And for the finale: the truth.

But then it gets real. And this is what I meant when I said things aren’t always as they appear. The message is strong and important.
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Mental health disorders are real.

1 in 10 young people in the U.K. will deal with a mental health disorder that necessitates help from a professional. 1 in 5 teens between the ages of 13 and 18 in the U.S. experiences a mental health disorder in any given year. 1 in 4 adults in both the U.K. and the U.S. will experience a mental health issue over the course of a year.
Unfortunately, there’s a stigma attached to mental health disorders. Time for Change explains:
“The attitudes people have towards those of us with mental health problems mean it is harder for them to work, make friends and in short, live a normal life.
People become isolated
They are excluded from everyday activities
It is harder to get or keep a job
People can be reluctant to seek help, which makes recovery slower and more difficult
Their physical health is affected
Many people say that being discriminated against in work and social situations can be a bigger burden than the illness itself.”
It really is time for change. If you know someone struggling with a mental health disorder, be a source of support if you’re able. If you’re struggling, there’s help. If you’re in the U.S., visit MentalHealth.gov.

Upworthy.

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Woman From Tokyo Deep Purple

Japan textile giant Toray campaign girl

FASHION-JAPAN

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New York City’s Most Expensive Apartment $100 Million

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An unknown buyer has shattered Manhattan real estate records with a recent purchase.
Someone has plunked down a staggering $100.47million on a 10,923-square-foot penthouse apartment occupying the entire 89th and 90th floors of One57, the high-end skyscraper apartment building that overlooks Central Park.
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The sale makes it the first time anyone has spent over $100million on a singe-family residence in the city.
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An unknown buyer has shattered Manhattan real estate records, plunking down $100.47million on a 10,923-square-foot penthouse apartment occupying the entire 89th and 90th floors of One57

It is the first time anyone has spent over $100 million on a single-family residence in the city
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Luxury: The apartment is in the One57 tower, a 90-floor glass skyscraper

Designed by French architect Christian de Portzamparc, the space will offer luxury amenities like a full service spa, a screening room, private dining room, a full spa and even a pet wash room.
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The billionaires behind fashion label Michael Kors, Lawrence Stroll and Silas Chou, have both signed contracts for $50 million full-floor apartments in the tower.
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The building will offer stunning vistas but the enormous structure will block the view from other nearby luxury buildings, which are expected to see their prices fall.
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In May, Forbes Magazine sent Morgan Brennan to get a look of the inside spaces in a build-out model at their Midtown sales office, and was guided around the model apartments by Director of Sales Dan Tubb.
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Girls of Tokyo

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20140830 oppai エロは地球を救う! by kenryokanbara

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JAV 9 japan girls strip show big tits by kireioppai

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Naked Japanese Restaurant by Claire_Cain

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Andrew Zimmern Bizarre Foods Tokyo

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